SOFERIM

SOFERIM
SOFERIM (Heb. סוֹפְרִים), one of the minor tractates printed in the Talmud editions at the end of the order of Nezikin. Its first main division (chs. 1–5) treats the writing of Sifrei Torah. The tosafists call it one of the "outside books" (Pes. 40b S.V. avel). Another of these tractates is Sefer Torah, to which Soferim bears a close relationship. Soferim contains 21 chapters divided into 255 paragraphs, which, like the mishnayot in the Jerusalem Talmud, are called halakhot. Chapters 1–9 cover writing materials; qualifications required in the writer; language and translation of the Bible and laws governing the mode of writing, particularly in reference to the names of God; sewing and repairing the parchment; preservation of scrolls that have become ritually unfit for use; textual variants; and readings of particular words and passages. Chapters 10–17 include regulations for reading on general and particular occasions; reading of particular passages; requirements of a quorum; some further regulations in writing, particularly the Hagiographa, with special attention to the Book of Esther; benedictions for reading these; qualifications for reading; sanctity of religious writings and appurtenances; tefillin and mezuzot; Torah study; the Haggadah; and readings for festivals and New Moon. Chapters 18–21 address daily and festival psalms and other liturgical matters; observances for the Day of Atonement; prayers for Tishah be-Av; blessings and readings on Ḥanukkah, and laws in connection therewith; rejoicing in Nisan; Purim observances; and various aggadot. This division is one of convenience but does not follow the dates of compilation, in which scholars see very much disorder. It is also not regarded as a unity but as a compilation of three distinct works belonging to different dates, with various interpolations. Most scholars regard the work as of Palestinian origin, though it is generally dated about the middle of the eighth century. In various matters the regulations of Soferim are accepted in practice as against the Talmud, e.g., reading   Exodus 32:11–14, 34:1–10 on fasts (17:7), whereas the Mishnah prescribes "the Curses and Blessings" (Lev. 26:3–end). Soferim appeared in English translation in the Soncino minor tractates (1965). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Mueller, Massekhet Soferim (1878); Weiss, Dor, 2 (1903), 217–8; M. Higger, Soferim (1937). (Harry Freedman)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • SOFERIM — (Heb. סוֹפְרִים; scribes ). Although the word soferim is identical with the biblical word translated scribes and dealt with under that heading, during the Second Temple period the word came to denote a specific class of scholars. The exact… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Soferim — (auch Hilkhot Soferim oder Baraita de Soferim) ist ein so genannter außerkanonischer Traktat des babylonischen Talmuds und wird gewöhnlich in dessen Anhang hinter der Ordnung Neziqin abgedruckt. Er behandelt die Vorschriften beim Schreiben einer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Soferim — (hebr.), Schriftgelehrte (s.d.) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Soferim — …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Soferim (Talmud) — Rabbinic Literature Talmudic literature Mishnah • Tosefta Jerusalem Talmud • Babylonian Talmud Minor tractates Halakhic Midrash Mekhilta de Rabbi Yishmael (Exodus) Mekhilta de Rabbi Shimon (Exodus) Sifra (Leviticus) Sifre (Numbers Deuteronomy)… …   Wikipedia

  • Tiqqun soferim — Tiqqūn sōferīm (תיקון סופרים, plural tiqqūnēy sōferīm תיקוני סופרים) is a term from rabbinic literature meaning correction of scribes or scribal correction and refers to a change of wording in the Tanakh in order to preserve the honor of God or… …   Wikipedia

  • TIKKUN SOFERIM — TIKKUN SOFERIM, certain changes in the text of the Bible made by the early soferim in places which are offensive or show lack of respect to God. Ezra is the first to be referred to as a sofer in the Bible. This designation signifies not merely… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • MASORAH — This article is arranged according to the following outline: 1. THE TRANSMISSION OF THE BIBLE 1.1. THE SOFERIM 1.2. WRITTEN TRANSMISSION 1.2.1. Methods of Writing 1.2.1.1. THE ORDER OF THE BOOKS 1.2.1.2. SEDARIM AND PARASHIYYOT …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Bible massorétique — Massorah Un feuillet du codex d Alep, comprenant de nombreuses notes massorétiques marginales. La Massore ou Massorah (hébreu : מסורה, chaîne ou tradition) est un pr …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Massora — Massorah Un feuillet du codex d Alep, comprenant de nombreuses notes massorétiques marginales. La Massore ou Massorah (hébreu : מסורה, chaîne ou tradition) est un pr …   Wikipédia en Français

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